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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments

The Authors

1: Introduction
    Stephen D. Hobbs and Thomas A. Spies
    A Wealth of New Information
    Overview of the Oregon Coast Range
    Choices
    Key Principles
    Literature Cited

2: Forest and Stream Management in the Oregon
    Rebecca L. Johnson and George Stankey
    Introduction
        Shifting conceptions of forest resources
        The social acceptability of forest practices and conditions
        Political power and organizational authority
    Sociopolitical Organization of the Oregon Coast Range
        Geopolitical boundaries
        Communities of interest
        Cultural boundaries
        Institutional boundaries
    The Changing Oregon Coast
        Changing population
            Population growth
            Demographic structure
        Changing patterns of land use
        Changing economy
            Income and employment
            Recreation and tourism industry
        Changing education levels
        Public values about natural resources
    Interactions Between Society and Forest Management
        Changing forest management and policy: implications for society
        Changling demographics: implications for forest management
        Value changes along the Oregon coast: implications for forest management
    Summary and Conclusions
    Future Research Needs
    Literature Cited

3: The Ecological Basis of Forest Ecosystem Management in the Oregon Coast Range
    Thomas A. Spies, David E. Hibbs, Janet L. Ohmann, Gordon H. Reeves, Robert J. Pabst, Frederick J. Swanson, Cathy Whitlock, Julia A. Jones, Beverly C. Wemple, Laurie A. Parendes, and Barbara A. Schrader
    Introduction
    Ecosystem Patterns and History
        Regional environment
        Forest ecosystem patterns
        Coast Range vegetation in geologic history
        The role of deciduous vegetation
        Riparian forests
    Productivity of Coast Range Forest and Stream Ecosystems
    Ecological Forces of Disturbance and Development
        Forest disturbances
        Tree death and decomposition
        Forest development
        Influence of human activities
    Watershed and Landscape-scale Processes
        Influence of roads on ecosystem function at multiple scales
        Aquatic-terrestrial linkages
        Natural processes as a foundation for management
    Literature Cited

4. Fish and Aquatic Ecosystems of the Oregon Coast Range
    Gordon H. Reeves, Kelly M. Burnett, and Stanley V. Gregory
    Introduction
    The Fish Fauna of the Oregon Coast Range
    Distribution of Fish in Coast Range Rivers and Streams
        Organization of rivers and stream systems
        Watersheds
        Reaches
        Habitat units
        Seasonal distribution
            Spring
            Summer
            Fall
            Winter
    Human Impacts on Fish and Fish Habitat
    Ecosystem Restoration
        Current approaches
        Ecosystem approach
    The Future: Ecosystem and Landscape Management
        A case study
            Conclusions
        A new disturbance regime
    Literature Cited

5: Ecology and Management of Wildlife and Their Habitats in the Oregon Coast Range
    John P. Hayes and Joan C. Hagar
    The Coast Range Supports a Diversity of Animal Species
    Habitat Components Within a Stand Influence the Presence and Abundance of Wildlife
        Dead wood
        Large and unique trees
        Special features
    Stand-level Characteristics Influence the Presence and Abundance of Wildlife
        Tree density and distribution
        Managing stands to benefit wildlife
    Riparian Areas Are of Special Management and Ecological Concern
        Wildlife communities along an inter-riparian gradient
        Wildlife communities along an intra-riparian gradient
        Managing riparian areas to benefit wildlife
    Summary and Conclusions
    Literature Cited

6: Timber Harvesting to Enhance Multiple Resources
    Loren D. Kellogg, Ginger V. Milota, and Ben Stringham
    Introduction
    Review of Harvesting Systems in the Oregon Coast Range
        Felling
        Cable systems
            Highlead
            Skyline
        Aerial systems
        Ground-based systems
        Mechanized systems
    Harvest Planning to Achieve Forest and Stream Resource Objectives
    Even-age Silvicultural Systems
        Appropriate harvesting systems
            Clearcutting
            Thinning
        Harvest planning and layout approaches
            Clearcutting
            Thinning
        Production and cost information
    Uneven-age Silvicultural Systems
        Appropriate harvesting systems
        Harvest planning and layout approaches
        Production and cost information
    Minimizing Damage to Residual Trees
        Monitoring of stand damage
        Harvesting approaches that minimize stand damage
            Skyline systems
            Tractor systems
            Mechanized cut-to-length systems
    Timber Harvesting for Riparian-area Management
        Appropriate harvesting systems
        Harvest planning and layout approaches
    A Case Study of Timber Harvesting for Active Riparian Management
    Summary
    Literature Cited

7: Silviculture of Oregon Coast Range Forests
    J.C. Tappeiner II, W.H. Emmingham, and D.E. Hibbs
    What is Silviculture and Why is it Important?
    Regeneration of Oregon Coast Range Forests
        Natural regeneration
        Artificial regeneration
        Natural diversity in young managed stands
    Patterns of Stand Development
    The Importance of Shrubs and Hardwoods
    Influence of Stand Density on Tree and Stand Characteristics
    Options for Managing Young Stands
        Controlling stand density when trees are young
        Thinning to achieve a variety of objectives
        Producing stands with old-growth characteristics
        Regeneration of understory tree species
        uneven-age silvicultural systems in Oregon Coast Range forest management
    Managing Hardwoods in the Oregon Coast Range
        Regeneration
        Thinning
        Species Mixes
        Poplar plantations
    Silviculture of Riparian Stands in the Coast Range
        Basing management strategies for riparian areas on ecological processes
        Silviculture practices to meet riparian-area management objectives
    Conclusions
    Literature Cited

8: Major Forest Diseases of the Oregon Coast Range and their Management
    Walter G. Thies and Ellen Michaels Goheen
    Introduction
    Important Root Diseases
        Laminated root rot
            Basic biology
            Management strategies
        Port-Orford-cedar root disease
            Basic biology
            Management strategies
        Black stain root disease
            Basic biology
            Management strategies
        Annosus root disease
            Basic biology
            Management strategies
        Armillaria root disease
            Basic biology
            Management strategies
    Other Forest Diseases
        Western hemlock dwarf mistletoe
            Basic biology
            Management strategies
        White pine blister rust
            Basic biology
            Management strategies
        Swiss needle cast
            Basic biology
            Management strategies
        Common stem decays
            Basic biology
            Management strategies
    Special Concerns for Disease Management
        Planning
        Topics for research
            Biology
            Management
    Summary and Conclusions
    Epilogue
    Literature Cited

9: Landslides, Surface Erosion, and Forest Operations in the Oregon Coast Range
    Arne E. Skaugset, Gordon H. Reeves, and Richard F. Keim
    Introduction
    Physical Setting of the Oregon Coast Range
        Geology
        Hydrology
    Landslides and Surface Erosion in Unmanaged Coast Range Forests
        Geomorphic context for debris flows
        Mechanistic context for debris flows
        Slope-stability analysis
        Soil strength
        Root strength
        Groundwater response to rainfall on hillslopes
        Debris flows and aquatic habitat
    Landslides and Surface Erosion in Managed Coast Range Forests
        Surface Erosion
        Surface Erosion from harvest units
            Dry ravel
            Infiltration-limited surface erosion
            Surface erosion from roads and landings
        Effect of forest-management activities on debris slides and flows
            In-unit landslides
            Road-related landslides
        The effect of forestry on debris flows
    Prevention and Mitigation of Accelerated Erosion in a Managed Coast Range Forest
        Best management practices and accelerated erosion
        Best management practices and debris slides and flows
        Watershed management and debris flows
    Summary
    Literature Cited

10: Moving toward Sustainability
    Stephen D. Hobbs, John P. Hayes, Rebecca L. Johnson, Gordon H. Reeves, Thomas A. Spies, and John C. Tappeiner II
    Introduction
    Integrated Resource Management, Sustainability, and Biological Diversity
        Integrated resource management
        Sustainability
        The conservation of biological diversity
    Changing Realities in the Oregon Coast Range
        Forest conditions
        Federal forests
        State of Oregon forests
        Industrial forests
        Nonindustrial forests
        Other influences
        Stream Conditions
    Challenges Facing Policy Makers
        Globalization, population growth, and demands on resources
        The public values, private-property rights debate
        Conflicting policies and legal requirements
        Establishing a framework for discussion
    Summary
    Literature

Conversion Factors
Glossary
Species List
Index

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