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Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments

Introduction

1. The Water Environment
     The Hydrologic Cycle
     Natural Conditions That Influence Water Quality
          Geology
          Climate
     Human Activities That Affect Water Quality
          Rivers and Streams
          Lakes and Ponds
          Wetlands
          Bays and Estuaries
          Oceans and Seas
          Groundwater
          Atmospheric Water
     Summary
     Additional Reading

2. Water Chemistry and Microbiology
     The Water Molecule
     Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature
     pH
     Organic Substances
     Inorganic Substances
     Solids
           Nutrients
     Toxics
     Microorganisms
     Summary
     Additional Reading

3. Sources of Water Pollution
     Stormwater Runoff
     Domestic Discharges
           Septic Systems
           Sewage Treatment Plants
     Industrial Discharges
     Accidental Spills
     Water Control Structures
     Summary
     Additional Reading

4. Preventing Water Pollution
     Prevention
     Natural Water Pollution Control Processes
     Stormwater Treatment
     Domestic Treatment
     Spill Prevention and Cleanup
     Summary
     Additional Reading

5. Water Quality Regulations
     Federal Regulations
          Clean Water Act
          Safe Drinking Water Act
          National Environmental Policy Act
          Endangered Species Act
          State Environmental Policy Act
     State Regulations
          National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
          Water Quality Standards
          Water Quality Certification
          Wetlands Protection
          State Environmental Policy Act
     Local Regulations
          Construction Related Ordinances
          Special District Ordinances
     Summary
     Additional Reading

6. The Watershed Approach
     Watershed Characteristics
     Activities Affecting Water Quality
     Alternatives for Addressing Concerns
     Monitoring the Watershed
     Summary
     Additional Reading

7. Drinking Water
     Drinking Water Sources
     Drinking Water Treatment
     Drinking Water Concerns
          Watershed Disturbances
          Groundwater Contamination
          Microbial Contamination
          Chlorinated Organics
          Copper and Lead
     Drinking Water Standards
     Summary
     Additional Reading

8. Getting Personal about Clean Water
     Water Quality at Home
          Use Environmentally Friendly Cleaning Products
          Use Household Water Wisely
          Use Household Energy Wisely
          Compost Your Lawn Clippings, Yard Debris, and Food Wastes
          Recycle and reuse Household Goods instead of Throwing Them in the Trash
          Follow Good Car Maintenance Practices
          Use Your Automobile Less and Use It More Selectively
          Be Mindful of Your Use of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Fertilizers in Home Landscaping
          Educate and Involve Your Children, and Set a Good Example
          Be Mindful of Runoff from Your Property
     Public Involvement
     Environmental Organizations
     Internet Resources
     Summary
     Additional Reading

Glossary

Index

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