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Table of Contents

Preface viii

Acknowledgments xi

Introduction 1

1 Tools of the Trade 11

  • The Roots of Discovery 11
  • A Passion for Heights 14
  • The Mountains Take Hold 20


2 Glaciers, Grosvenor, and Grand Explorations 28

  • The Pathfinders 28
  • Mount Fairweather 34
  • Mount Crillon: If at First You Don't Succeed ... 39
  • Washburn and Grosvenor 63
  • The 1935 NGS Yukon Expedition 69
  • John Kennedy's Mountain 75
  • Through Uncharted Ice 80
  • A Path Now Chosen 89


3 The War Years 95

  • Lessons Learned and Forgotten 95
  • The "Cold War" on the Home Front 100
  • "The Mess at Wright" 110
  • The Smoking Gun 113
  • House of Cards 119
  • "Unconventional Methods" 121
  • The Dividends Emerge 124
  • Death and Disappearance on Mount Deception 126
  • New Horizons 144


4 Mount McKinley: Maps, Hollywood, and Cold War Science 148

  • Discovering the Landscape 148
  • The Mountaineers Arrive 153
  • From Harvard to Hollywood 154
  • Operation White Tower 163
  • Mapping the Mountain Landscape 173
  • Mr. McKinley 192


5 From Sledge to Shuttle 195

  • The Washburn Legacy 195



Notes 209

Literature Cited 241

Index 255

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