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Table of Contents

Foreword .......................................................................................... viii
Introduction......................................................................................... 1

I. The Theory and Practice of Biological Control
The Ecology of Biological Control ...................................................... 15
Foreign Exploration ........................................................................... 27
Host Specificity Testing of Biological Control Agents
      of Weeds .................................................................................... 32
Technical Advisory Group for Biological Control Agents
      of Weeds .................................................................................... 38
Permitting ......................................................................................... 42
Documentation ................................................................................. 47
Plant Pathology and Biological Control of Invasive Weeds ............... 50
Handling Terrestrial Biological Control Agents .................................. 59
Post-Release Procedures for Biological Control Agents of
      Aquatic and Wetland Weeds....................................................... 71
Factors That Affect Successful Establishment of Biological
      Control Agents ........................................................................... 85
Monitoring in Weed Biological Control Programs............................... 95
Nontarget Impacts of Biological Control Agents ............................. 106
Integrated Weed Management and Biological Control ................... 114
Economic Benefits of Biological Control ........................................... 122
The Role of Private Industry in Biological Control of Weeds ............ 127
International Code of Best Practices for Classical
      Biological Control of Weeds ...................................................... 130

II. Target Plants and the Biological Control Agents
Alligatorweed .................................................................................. 139
Bindweeds ...................................................................................... 150
Brooms ........................................................................................... 158
Eurasian watermilfoil ...................................................................... 169
Giant salvinia .................................................................................. 174
Gorse .............................................................................................. 178
Hydrilla ............................................................................................ 184
Knapweeds ..................................................................................... 197
Leafy spurge ................................................................................... 236
Mediterranean sage ........................................................................ 267
Melaleuca ........................................................................................ 272
Puncturevine ................................................................................... 280
Purple loosestrife ............................................................................ 285
Rush skeletonweed ........................................................................ 296
Russian thistle ................................................................................ 306
Saltcedar ........................................................................................ 313
Smooth cordgrass ........................................................................... 319
St. Johnswort .................................................................................. 324
Tansy ragwort ................................................................................. 337
Thistles ........................................................................................... 346
Toadflax .......................................................................................... 379
Tropical soda apple ......................................................................... 395
Waterhyacinth ................................................................................ 402
Waterlettuce .................................................................................. 414
Yellow starthistle ............................................................................ 421

III. New and Ongoing Biological Control Projects in the United States
Brazilian peppertree........................................................................ 439
Cape ivy .......................................................................................... 441
Common buckthorn ......................................................................... 442
Common teasel ............................................................................... 442
Garlic mustard ................................................................................. 443
Giant reed ....................................................................................... 443
Hawkweeds .................................................................................... 444
Houndstongue ................................................................................ 445
Japanese knotweed ....................................................................... 446
Medusahead ryegrass .................................................................... 446
Old World climbing fern ................................................................... 447
Skunk vine ...................................................................................... 449
Sulfur cinquefoil ............................................................................... 450
Water chestnut ............................................................................... 451
Whitetop / Hoary cress ................................................................... 452

Authors, Editors, and Contributors ................................................. 453
Index .............................................................................................. 456

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